"In the buginning is the woid"

Eishiro Ito


  The chapter named "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" (FW III, 1, pp.414-419) contains numerous insects' names.  Among them, the central figure seems to be a scarab beetle, neither the ant nor the grasshopper.
  This chapter is, as the name proves, based on one of the most famous Aesop's Fables, "The Ant and the Grasshopper" (North European version).  But the most important fact is that there are numerous allusions to The Egyptian Book of the Dead.  It is a collection of texts that the ancient Egyptian scribes composed for the benefit of the dead--words of power and prayers.  There were carved or painted on walls of pyramids and tombs, and painted on coffins and rolls or papyri.  The scarab beetle, or "dung beetle," is depicted in the form of the rising sun, and his seat is in the boat of the Sun-god.  He is the god of matter that is on the point of passing from inertness into life, and also of the dead body from which a spiritual and glorified body is about to burst forth.  When Joyce went to the British Museum, he was greatly impressed by the Egyptian statuary, as he told Arthur Power later.  Present in the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery when he visited, was an enormous greenish dolerite scarab beetle, which probably gave him the inspiration for such phrases as "not a leetle beetle" (FW417.03) and "quite a big bug" (FW596.27). 
  We can find many allusions to the scarab beetle, not only in this chapter, but also in other chapters.  Like HCE for Earwicker, he is an image of Shem.  In this chapter, Shem becomes the Gracehoper as Joyce, while his brother Shaun becomes the Ondt as Joyce's brother, Stanislaus.  Wyndham Lewis, Joyce's friend and later enemy, criticized Ulysses as a "time-book."  Joyce, using the Aesop's fable and allusions to The Book of the Dead, objected to Lewis's criticism, especially in the phrase, "But, Holy Saltmartin, why can't you beat time?" (FW419.08)  It also reminds us of the 10th provision of the Proclamation of transition, "TIME IS A TYRANNY TO BE ABOLISHED."  As Motoi Oda pointed out, it can apply for Joyce, who was not asked to sign it somehow, as well as Gertrude Stein.
  The Book of the Dead is concerned about "day," not "night" as Finnegans Wake is.  But both books are concerned about "resurrection" or "rebirth of the dead."  It is quite significant that Joyce inserted numerous insects' names in this chapter with many allusions to the book because the name of the protagonist, Earwicker, is also derived from an insect's.

Joycean Japan, No.13. The James Joyce Society of Japan, June 16, 2002.
Copyright 2002 Eishiro Ito

"In the buginning is the woid"

Eishiro Ito


@"In the buginning is the woid" (FW378.29)

  This passage is a Joycean allusion to "In the beginning was the Word"(KJV, John 1.1).  The protagonist of Finnegans Wake, Earwicker, was named after the earwig, that is, a "bug," and the "woid" was a portmanteau word of "void" and "word."  The passage seems to be an advance announcement of "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" (FW III, 1; 414.14-419.10).
  "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" first appeared in transition, vol.12, March 1928.  The key to this episode is doubtlessly the multi-lingual names of "bugs" scattered in this chapter.  This chapter is, as the name proves, based on one of the most famous Aesop's fables, "The Ant and the Grasshopper"(North European version). 
  But the most important fact is that there are numerous allusions to The Egyptian Book of the Dead.  It is a collection of texts that the ancient Egyptian scribes composed for the benefit of the dead?words of power and prayers.  They were carved or painted on walls of pyramids and tombs, and painted on coffins and rolls of papyri.  The scarab beetle, or "dung beetle," is depicted in the form of the rising sun, and his seat is in the boat of the Sun-god.  He is the god of matter that is on the point of passing from inertness into life, and also of the dead body from which a spiritual and glorified body is about to burst forth. 
  There are many allusions to the scarab beetle, not only in this chapter, but also in other chapters.  Like HCE for Earwicker, he is an image of Shem.  In this chapter, Shem becomes the Gracehoper as Joyce, while his brother Shaun becomes the Ondt as Joyce's brother, Stanislaus.  Wyndham Lewis, Joyce's friend and later enemy, criticized Ulysses as a "time-book."  Joyce, using the Aesop's fable and allusions to The Book of the Dead, refuted Lewis's criticism, especially in the phrase, "But, Holy Saltmartin, why can't you beat time?"(FW419.08).  It also reminds us of the 10th provision of the Proclamation of transition, "TIME IS A TYRANNY TO BE ABOLISHED."  This paper aims to examine the bug references in relation to The Book of the Dead and the background of the text composition.

I. "Bug of the Deaf"

  In Joyce's version of Aesop's fable "the Ant and the Grasshopper," the Ondt=Shaun cunningly stores money and food while the Gracehoper=Shem always sings gaily about his arts without working.  But the Gracehoper comes to ask the Ondt for some food or money when winter comes and he cannot earn his living.  The Ondt refuses his wish, and then the Gracehoper begins to sing a song putting the blame on him.  The postscript moral of the original Aesop's fable, "Similarly, in times of abundance we should plan ahead lest we suffer distress when times change," is not to be found here.  The Gracehoper's behavior is rather ludicrous: the way he asks to borrow some money from the Ondt sounds very arrogant.  As many scholars have already pointed out, "ant" spelled "Ondt," means "evil" in Danish, is an anagram of "Don't," and is close to "aandt" which means "spirit," "breath" and "intellect" in Danish.  The word "Gracehoper" is of course a mimic word of "grasshopper," which is also related to Joyce's short story "Grace."  It has been suggested that the major part of the Ondt's character owes to Joyce's brother Stanislaus as well as Wyndham Lewis.  It is agreed that the Gracehoper is Joyce himself.
  There are two types of academic terms inserted very intentionally; multi-lingual European insects' names, and the Egyptian gods, whose main source would probably be The Book of the Dead.1  Joyce inserted them as he inserted numerous rivers' names in the Anna Livia chapter(FWI.8), or interpolated the roads' names of various countries in FWIII.4.
  Joyce wrote a letter to Harriet Shaw Weaver dated March 26, 1928, in which he tried to explain "the Ondt and the Gracehoper" chapter, making notes to convince her.2  His notes include various things, seemingly rambling and incoherent.  But he explains the chapter, particularly on FW414.22-415.14, 415.25-31, 416.03-19, 416.21-30, 417.02-23, 417.24-418.01, focusing on the numerous European names of insects.  28 entries of the 74 items are related to insects' names: 34 entries (almost half of them) include entomological terms.  The fact proves how important the insects' names were for this chapter, especially when Joyce was composing it.
  It is believed that Joyce referred to the La Fountaine edition of Aesop's Fables in which the story is titled "The Cicada and the Ants" (no.336).3  The reason Joyce employed "grasshopper" or the Gracehoper is probably to add some Danish implications to the chapter, as well as the Ondt.  In fact, almost no cicadas inhabit North Europe, so the word "cicada" was changed into "grasshopper" in North European editions.4  A similar fable, "The Ant and the Scarab Beetle" appears in the Penguin edition of Aesop's Fables (no.241).  The scarab beetle or dung beetle was a sacred insect in ancient Egypt and appears in other Aesop's fables, for instance, "The Eagle and the Scarab Beetle"(no. 4) and "The Two Scarab Beetles" (no.149).  Joyce must have noticed this, and he put "cicada"(FW416.25), "scarab"(FW415.25) and "beetle"(FW417.04) in the text.
  There are some more entomological terms derived from other sources in this chapter, as we see in Roland McHugh's Annotations to "Finnegans Wake" which includes numerous entomological notes.5  McHugh is not a scholar of English literature but an entomologist, so he was able to make such a large number of entomological annotations.  McHugh probably transcribed those multi-lingual insects' names from Adaline Glasheen's Census and Clive Hart's "His Good Smetterling of Entymology" which summarizes Fritz Senn's "Insects Appalling" of Twelve and a Tilly in order to make notes.6  Especially after FW414.25, many insects' names appear, like FlohiGer. fleaj, Luse(Ger. or Dan. louse), Vespatilla(wasp), etc.  Joyce also included many other terms from natural history in some languages with a strong bias towards bees and butterflies.
  Living in the countryside of Japan, we often see the neighborhood children carrying insect nets and cages, going to catch beetles, grasshoppers and other insects in summer time.  So it was quite surprising to me when I heard from my American and British friends that they seldom see children with insect-catching tools in their countries.  For Japanese people, the sight and sound of insects is comforting.  Sei Shonagon noted in her Pillow Book (c.1000) appealing insects include "The bell insect and the pine cricket; the grasshopper and the common cricket; the butterfly and the shrimp insect; the mayfly and the firefly."7  She went on to say "The snap-beetle also impresses me... Sometimes one suddenly hears the snap-beetle tapping away in a dark place, and this is rather pleasant"(70).  Only the fly is described in a negative way(70).  But insects, however, seems to have less positive associations for Western people.  France, where Joyce wrote Finnegans Wake, does not have many words related to insects except academic terms, most of them are very ambiguous in definition even now.  Daizaburo Okumoto points out that such state of things is reflected in the saying, "God created the world and the devil created insects."8  No stories like Aesop's Fables featuring insects were made in France.  Jean Henri Fabre's Souvenirs entomologiques (1879-1907), which is very popular among the Japanese school children, is a peculiar exception in France.  Some Japanese readers may hope that "fable" in the phrase "Jacko and Esaup, fable one" (FW414.17) should be spelled "fabre" after the name of Fabre, although Joyce employed the normal English spelling.  In this entomological chapter, however, as in the phrase "these mouschical umsummables" (FW417.09; or "these musical ensembles") the insects' singing is in harmony like wonderful music.
  Aesop's Fables is a collection of fables told by Aesop (? -564 BC), a man who seems to have been captured and made a slave.  The fables were written down by Demetrius of Phalerum in late 4 BC (approximately a hundred of them), because Aesop left nothing in book-form.9  If it were not for the efforts of Demetrius, most of the Aesop's fables known to us would certainly have been lost.  The main characteristic of the fables is that some animals or insects appear in the short fables with the morals at the end.  The morals are often silly and inferior in wit and interest to the fables themselves.  Some of the morals are truly appalling, even idiotic because they were added later by collectors of the fables.10  A few of the fables seem to have Egyptian elements.  A clear example is "The Eagle and the Scarab Beetle" (no.4) which is actually a jumbled mixture of the sacred Egyptian tradition, as we will see later.  In Finnegans Wake, also featuring many animals and insects, the fables alluded to expand the images and become much more complex.  The Joycean Aesop fable counterpart of "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" is the well-known, "The Mookse & the Gripse" (FW152.18-153.19), and both of them refer to Wyndham Lewis.  The phrase "your mocks for my gropes"(FW418.32) was later inserted into this chapter in 1929, probably considering the Aesop relationship.

  According to Britannica, The Book of the Dead is:

[the] ancient Egyptian collection of mortuary texts made up of spells or magic formulas, placed in tombs and believed to protect and aid the deceased in the hereafter. Probably compiled and re-edited during the 16th century BC, the collection included Coffin Texts dating from c. 2000 BC, Pyramid Texts dating from c. 2400 BC, and other writings. Later compilations included hymns to Re, the sun god. Numerous authors, compilers, and sources contributed to the work. Scribes copied the texts on rolls of papyrus, often colourfully illustrated, and sold them to individuals for burial use. Many copies of the book have been found in Egyptian tombs, but none contains all of the approximately 200 known chapters. The collection, literally titled "The Chapters of Coming-Forth-by-Day," received its present name from Karl Richard Lepsius, German Egyptologist who published the first collection of the texts in 1842.(britannica 2001)

These texts are for the most part excessively corrupt, and despite the translations of Pierret, Renouf and Budge, much labor must yet be expended upon them before they can rank as a first-rate source.11
  This book contains the seeds of most religious elements down through the ages, for instance, the antagonism of the dualism between good and evil, the worship of the sun-god, the idea of "the passion, the resurrection and the eternity" and the eschatology similar to that of later Christianity, the immortality of the soul and the metempsychosis.  In Joyce's time, owing to the trends of mysticism and theosophy, many people admired the ancient Egyptian culture. 
  The English translation by Sir E.A. Wallis Budge (1895), now notoriously unreliable because of many mistakes, was the one Joyce mainly referred to, as we can see in the phrase "budge of klees"(a bunch of keys, FW511.30).  As James S. Atherton notes, Frank Budgen was the first to point out that Joyce had made use of The Book of the Dead.12  This was in an article entitled "Joyce's Chapters of Going Forth By Day,"  a title derived from the old name of the book in the Theban period as Joyce referred to it in the text like "the thieves' recession"(FW410.36-11.1: or "Theban recension").  In fact, numerous thieves tried to steal treasures from the pyramids or coffins.  Budgen wrote that, "Many philosophies flit mothlike with characteristic words across the pages of Finnegans Wake, and ancient ritual books and compilations, particularly the Norse Edda and the Egyptian Book of the Dead, are constantly recurring themes."(Two Decades 364).  Unfortunately Budgen does not tell to what extent Joyce made use of The Book of the Dead.  There are many influential studies about The Book of the Dead including James S. Atherton's The Books at the Wake (1959), Mark L. Troy's Mummeries of Resurrection (1976), John Bishop's Joyce's Book of the Dark (1986): there are uncountable allusions on almost every page of Finnegans Wake as well as the names of many Egyptian gods like Isis, Osiris, Horus, Set, Ptuh, Thoth, and Hap.  In this chapter of "The Ondt and the Gracehoper," we can find, for instance, Ra (FW414.36: the Aged One; FW415.11-12), Ptah (FW415.26: Ptuh!), Thoth (FW515.28: thothfully), Ba (FW415.31), Hapi (FW416.01: Heppy's), Horus (FW418.05&08: Haru), Osiris (FW418.05: Orimis).  Thus in this chapter, "What a zeit for the goths!"(FW415.26-27: or "What a sight for the gods!")
  The phrase "Bug of the Deaf" appears in FW134.35.  Atherton notes that the word "bug" means here surely "insect"; for not only The Book of the Dead contain pictures of Kephera, a god in the form of a scarab beetle, but one of its chapters, XXXb, is described by Budge as having been "inscribed on numberless scarabs" (192).13  It is the clue for the connection between this entomological chapter and The Book of the Dead.  "The Book of Breathings" (FW415.23) is a part of The Book of the Dead.  It was a Greco-Roman text on the Volume III of Budge's recension Joyce probably used.  The narrative style of this chapter is somewhat similar to the one of Budge's translation, for, I presume, the style of this chapter originally imitates the litany style or the incantation style.  In Budge's translation, the phrase "Hail, Osiris Kerasher, the son of Tashenatit!" repeated many times in the Part I, is reflected in "Behailed His Gross the Ondt, prostrandborous upon his dhronec"(FW417.10-11).   Also, "Let your faces be turned towards me," is reiterated many times in the Part II of Budge's recension while there are three sentences which begin with "Let" in this chapter (FW414.18-; 418.01-;418.18-), and a series of long optative sentences or a fervent prayer are enumerated after FW415.34.  This chapter ends with a mocking Christian blessing, "In the name of the former and of the latter and of their holocaust.  Allmen"(or "In the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, Amen"), so it is adequate to have the "Book of Breathings" in this chapter.  In the third passage it says: "The Osiris Kerasher, (3) the son of Tashenatit, hath been cleansed by means of the waters of Sekhet-hetep (i.e., Field of Peace [cf.FW415.34 & 35]) which is situated to the north of Sekhet-Sanehem (i.e., Field of Grasshoppers) (663).  Joyce intentionally put the name of the book here to associate Gracehoper with The Book of the Dead.
  Most allusions to ancient Egypt that McHugh points out are not derived from the "Book of Breathings" but from other texts of the Budge recension, for instance, the Papyrus of Ani.  Joyce must have referred to other Egyptian references.  He probably consulted the 11th Britannica (1910-11).14  Atherton indicates that Joyce might have referred to James G. Frazer's The Golden Bough to insert some ancient Egyptian vocabulary(193).

In The Book of the Dead, the most prominent insect is the scarab beetle or the dung beetle which of course appears in this entomological chapter: "Grouscious me and scarab my sahul!" (or Gracious me and scribe my soul!; FW415.25).  Budge notes that the ancient Egyptian people worshipped the scarab beetle and identified it with Khepera(God the Creator):

He is form of the rising sun, and his seat is in the boat of the Sun-god.  He is the god of matter which is on the point of passing from inertness into life, and also of the dead body from which a spiritual and glorified body is about to burst forth.  His emblem is a beetle.15

Clive Hart insists that this is clearly Shem, the "dirty little blacking beetle"(FW171.30), who "beetles backwards" (FW248.18) and from whose corrupting body all artistic life flows.16  Shem characterizes himself in this chapter as "not a leetle beetle"(FW417.03; or "Great Beetle") and later he describes himself as "quite a big bug"(FW596.27).  The scarab beetle is a central figure among numerous insects in this entomological chapter and is a link between this chapter and The Book of the Dead.  Shem (Gracehoper) or Joyce used some citations from the Koran to persuade Shaun (Ondt) or Wyndham Lewis, and used some mocking Christian blessing to preach the resurrection of the dead and the eternity of the art in the end of the chapter.  The scarab beetle appears in this chapter only one time, but many other beetles are mentioned here, like cantharides (FW415.09), sexton beetle (FW416.13), brouk (FW416.15), chrysomelidae (FW416.26), "a leetle beetle"(FW417.04), zhuk (FW417.30), primpeallian (FW418.19).  We should also pay attention to "dung" references, for instance, "durrydunglecks"(FW416.11), sterus (FW416.22), merda (FW418.10).  In addition, his form of rising sun is mentioned many times: retrophoebia (FW415.10), Ra (FW415.11-12), "sunsunsuns" (FW415.22), "Nichtsnichtsunnichts!"(FW416.17), "nissuntimost"(FW417.05), "sunnyroom" (FW417.14), "antboat" (FW418.05-06).  All of these words are links between the insects described here and The Book of the Dead.  The scarab beetle is also described as "deleteful hour of dungflies dawning"(FW118.32).  This image also relates the artist to Khopri or Khepri, the scarab god himself, as Mark L. Troy points out in Mummeries of Resurrection (83).  In addition, the English word "bug" was spelled "bugge" which meant a generic name for beetles, grubs, etc. (OED2).  As Troy presumes, Joyce's development of his scarab images may well be based on a personal knowledge of their impressiveness when rendered in stone, for we know that he was greatly impressed by the Egyptian statuary in the British Museum(83).17   Present in the Egyptian Sculpture Gallery (Room 4 north) since 1834, is the 152.5 cm-length greenish dolerite scarab beetle (see below), which probably contributes to the image conjured by such phrases as "not a leetle beetle" (FW417.03) and "quite a big bug"(FW596.27).

The Giant Scarab (332-30 BC), found in Istanbul.  The British Museum.18

II. The "bugs" in Progress

Unlike Ulysses, which also passed through innumerable writing stages, it is possible to survey and document the draft and proofs of "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" stage by stage, from the "First Draft" to the 1939 text.
First Draft: JJA57.293-307: 47483-81-89.  (Probably February 1928)
Redraft of beginning (FW414.14-16.26): JJA57.308-309: 47483-91-91v. (? February 1928)
Third proofs for transition: JJA57.318-323: 47483-92v-97.  (Dated by the printer 2 March 1928)
TS for transition (FW418.10-19.10): JJA61.19&333: 47486b-313. (March 1928)
transition 12, 16-19.  Principal Agency: Shakespeare and Co. (March 1928)
Setting TS for Tales Told (Yale) (FW414.22-): JJA57.341-52: Yale 9.6-1-12.  (Probably April 1929)
Proofs for Tales Told (first set) (Yale) (FW414.22-): JJA57.353-60: Yale 9.9-14-16a. (Probably April 1929)
Proofs for Tales Told (third set) (Texas) (FW414.22-): JJA57.363-71: Texas-17-25.  (Dated by Joyce 19 May 1929)
Duplicate of third proof (Yale) (FW417.27-418.13): JJA57.372: Yale 9.7-1. (Probably May or June 1929)  A Duplicate of Level 05
Proofs for Tales Told (fourth set) (Yale) (FW417.26-419.10): JJA57.373-76: Yale 9.8-52-55.  (Probably May or June 1929)
Marked pages of Two Tales of Shem and Shaun: JJA61.9-18: 47486a-75v-47486b-312.  (Date unknown)
Pages from Two Tales ("The Ondt and the Gracehoper"): JJA61.318,325-32: 47486b-305v, 306-12. (Date unknown)
Galley proofs for Finnegans Wake (first set): JJA62.16-21: 47487-8v-12. (Dated by the printer 22 April and 31 May 1937)
Galley proofs (second set): JJA62.262-67: 47487-145v-49. (Dated by the printer 22 April and 31 May 1937)
Finnegans Wake (1939). Viking Compass Edition, 1959; rpr.1987)

  Joyce changed and rephrased some words elaborately, but since the transition typescript, he basically tried to leave most words as they appeared in the text for the first time until the final text without omitting or greatly changing the word order.  In other words, the work Joyce did for the text is "insertion" from transition to the 1939 text.  He inserted words in some parts mostly to keep a balance between one part and its counterpart.  He sometimes put many terms of a particular field into the text at one time.  I put the typescript of the transition on Level 02.1 in the above table because there seems to be no correction in this chapter since Level 02: transition is Level 02.2.  The dates of Level 06 and Level 07 are unknown in The James Joyce Archive, but the revisions of the first set of pages were possibly begun in 1933-1934, and were completed by 1 July 1936. 
  Joyce began to write this chapter in 1924, and finished a draft in 1926, according to his letters.19  Wyndham Lewis published "An Analysis of the Mind of James Joyce" in The Enemy in January 1927.  This article was published in Time and Western Man in September 1927.  In it Lewis wrote, "I regard Ulysses as a time-book; and by that I mean that it lays its emphasis upon, for choice manipulates, and in a doctrinaire manner, the self-conscious time-sense, that has now been erected into a universal philosophy"(81).  Lewis's criticism angered Joyce and he made changes to his manuscript in an effort to clarify his literary method.  This means that there must have been an earlier draft than Level 01 (First Draft) that was free from any criticism toward Lewis, although it may be already extant.
  Joyce's composition on this chapter can be divided into four stages after the so-called First Draft in February 1928.  The first stage is from the First Draft to transition.  The First Draft was composed around February 1928 and after a delicate correction this chapter appeared on transition, vol.12, March 1928.  From Level 01 to Level 02 it seems to have been no big change in his plan; the only striking insertion in on FW417.26-33.
  The second stage is from March 1928 to June 1929, when Joyce put a lot of words into various parts of the text, because it was published as a part of Tales Told of Shem and Shaun with Book I Chapter 6 and Book II Chapter 2 (Paris: The Black Sun Press, 1929: FW152-59, 282-304, 414-19).  In the above table, it is from Level 03 to Level 05.2.  At Level 03, Joyce inserted FW415.02-19, 415.31-16.02, 416.15, 416.17-20, 417.01-02, 418.05, 418.09, 418.22-25, etc., including the words related to the ancient Egyptian terms.  At Level 04, he added to the text FW415.11, 415.14-15, 415.19-22, 415.33-34, 416.16-19,417.10-12, 417.28, 418.18-19, 418.26-29, etc., including some entomological terms conspicuously.  At Level 05, insertions were done in FW415.26, 416.30-32 (non-Egyptian religious terms), 418.06-08(Egyptian religious terms), 418.32-19.02 (incl. "your mocks for my gropes").
  The third stage is from 1933 to 1936 (from Level 06 to Level 07), but the exact date is unknown according to The James Joyce Archive.  Probably Joyce restarted work on them around 1933 or 1934, and completed them on July 1st 1936, as in the JJA notes.  By that time the other parts were almost finished: Joyce carefully intensified each motif by adding some more words in view of the whole book.  At Level 06 Joyce inserted words at FW414.19-20 (a long word in parenthesis), 416.19-20, 416.34, 416.36(Danish words), 417.04-07, 417.09("these mouschical umsummables"), 417.12-13, 417.20-21, 417.24, 417.33, 418.01-04(prayer beginning with "Let").  He continued to put more entomological words, too.  Level 07 is almost same as Level 06, with no outstanding insertion.
  Finally the fourth stage ranges from Level 08 to Level 09, almost at the same time, judging from the printer's date, completed by May 31, 1937.  At Level 08 "Have mood!  Hold forth!"(FW414.14-15) was inserted and made the long word in parenthesis (FW414.19) longer: almost no big difference except spelling checks and other minor changes.  Finnegans Wake was published in 1939, but the edition I refer to this time is the Viking Compass edition (1959), which is Level 10 in my table above.  In addition, my table starts from FW414.14, because I follow Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon's Understanding "Finnegans Wake," after checking the text from Level 01 to Level 02.20
  As for entomological insertions, "Floh" and "Luse"(FW417.29) appeared in First Draft. "Flutterby" and "Lovelight" were there in place of the insects' names "Bienie" and "Vespatilla"(FW417.30).  As far as I can check, "Flutterby" and "Lovelight" are not entomological names.  These two names were replaced by the present insects' names at Level 01.1, the stage of Redraft: they were changed before transition (March 1928). Major European insects' names appeared in transition.  The majority of the complicated entomological terms McHugh points out were inserted around 1929.  This means that before First Draft Joyce had already planned to insert numerous insects' names in this chapter.  This insertion was done almost at the same time as the philosophers' names.
  It may be surprising that the Egyptian insertions from The Book of the Dead were done mostly after transition.  At Level 01, there were very few Egyptian words, for instance, "inscythe the wormcasket"(FW415.01); most of them were inserted at Level 03.  Actually most major motifs, i.e., the insects' names, Grimm brothers, Jacob and Esau, Aesop's Fables (FW414.17), "windhame"(Wyndham Lewis, FW415.29), counterargument to Lewis (FW419.03-08), "Tossmania"(FW416.30) and the philosophers' names (FW417.15-22) were already at Level 01.

III. "why can't you beat time?"

  Umberto Eco explains in The Aesthetics of Chaosmos:

In the chapter in which Shaun the postman pleads against Shem the penman, Joyce recounts the fable of The Ondt and the Gracehoper (The Ant and Grasshopper).  Shaun identifies with the thrifty ant and denounces in Shem the thoughtlessness of the grasshopper.  But in the heart of Shaun's pejoration, Joyce extols the "Gracehoper," the artist turned towards the future, towards growth and development.  Shem is thus symbolized by the tree and traditionalist immobility of the ant is symbolized by the stone, "ant" being deformed into "ondt" which signifies "evil" in Danish (70).21

  Joyce=Gracehoper sings the ballads like Tim Finnegan or spends his days composing "Finnegans Wake."  After FW415.15, thus follows: "For if scienciumc can mute uns nought, 'a thought, abought the Great Sommboddy within the Omniboss, perhops an artsaccordc might sing ums tumtim abutt the Little Newbuddies that ring his panch"(or For if sciencec can mute us nought a thought of the Great Somebody within the Omnipotent, perhaps a harpsichord might sing us something about the little new bodies that ring his paunch).  For this reason, the grasshopper sings, "hoppyc of his joyicity"(FW414.22-23; or happilyc in his Joycean way).  The Ondt, on the other hand, is a serious chairman and "is opposed to adventure in time, claiming the primacy, the solidity, and the inalterability of space" (Eco 72; cf. FW416.04-08).  Joyce implicated the argument with Wyndham Lewis here.
  Lewis insisted in Time and Western Man (cf. FW292.06: "Spice and Westend Women") that the "classical unities of time and place are buried beneath its scale, however, and in this All-life-in-a-day scheme there is small place for them"(81-82) and criticized Joyce's and Proust's method of the "time-fanaticism"(83) and "telling from the inside"(89).  Lewis's severe criticism targeted Ulysses mainly because, as Lewis said, "no writing of his before Ulysses would have given him anything but an honourable position as the inevitable naturalist-french-influenced member of the romantic Irish Revival-a Maupassant of Dublin, but without the sinister force of Flaubert's disciple"(73).  He even told that "At the end of a long reading of Ulysses you feel that it is the very nightmare of the naturalistic method that you have been experiencing" (89), which upset Joyce considerably.  So Joyce tried to make fun of Lewis in Finnegans Wake.  Lewis, classicist, could not write a novel which could live in its rhythm and conquer time, as Joyce could.  Paradoxically, however, we can say that Lewis's criticism was worth Joyce putting forth a counterargument.  The Ondt is a "conformed acetist and aristotaller"@(FW417.16; or conformed atheist [ascetic] and Aristotelian) who lectures various philosophies like Thomas Aquinas (FW417.07), Confucius(FW417.15), etc.  As Eco explains, the Gracehoper and the Ondt are "'umsummables,' the dialectic between the tree and the stone no longer enters into the possible summa of an Aristotelian philosophy"(72).  In this chapter Shem= Gracehoper=Joyce ridicules Shaun=Ondt=Lewis, but both of them do not try to convince the other.  "For the prize of your save is the price of my spend"(FW418.21): so the Gracehoper forgives the Ondt "weeping"(FW418.12). 
  As the Aesopian phrase, "Jerkoff and Eatsoup" (FW246.30 & 563.24; Jerkoff=Jacob/Shem) shows, the identifying Aesop with Shaun is coherent throughout the novel.  Grace Eckley explains in Children's Lore in "Finnegans Wake" that Joyce remains consistent with the biography of Aesop who as former slave defended his master, Croesus; and his reply raises himself from the position of humble petitioner to that of granter of favor while being perfectly frank about the Ondt's "gift" of advice and rejection (32).
  It is beyond question that the Gracehoper=Shem argues against Lewis here.  It reminds us, however, of the so-called "The Revolution of the Word Proclamation" of  transition, 16/17(1929), "tired of the spectacle of short stories, novels, poems and plays still under the hegemony of the banal word, monotonous syntax, static psychology, descriptive naturalism, and desirous of crystallizing a viewpointc."22  Among the twelve articles, "10. TIME IS A TYRANNY TO BE ABOLISHED" is similar to "But, Holy Saltmartin, why can't you beat time?"(FW419.08).  Motoi Oda argues in Exodus of Arts

  To Eugene Jolas's mind, doubtlessly, the closest was Joyce, or "Work in Progress."  It was considered that there were two vectors for "the abolition of the time": one is "the pan-time sense" and the other is "the anti-time sense."
  In "Work in Progress," the daily dreamtime and the historical events get indistinguishably and simultaneously entangled each other.  The primal scene buried deep in the daily life-we may call it the collective consciousness-appealed to the artist's idea and imagination to come across the time, when "the anti-time sense" occurs.  We can see either way of managing the time already in Ulysses rather strikingly.23
  Oda's argument seems very important to understand FW419.08.  Joyce was not among the people who signed the Proclamation.  Most of those who signed were either directly involved with editing transition like Robert Sage, Stuart Gilbert and Elliot Paul.  Hart Crane and A.L. Gillespie were the only writers who signed.  Joyce and Gertrude Stein, most appropriate to sign, were not even asked to sign?probably because both were too independent.24  As Oda points out, chief-editor Jolas must have been most conscious of Finnegans Wake when they planned to declare this (120).  As we have seen, "But, Holy Saltmartin, why can't you beat time?" (FW419.08) near the end of the chapter certainly responds to the Proclamation.   Or the Proclamation differently responded to Lewis's criticism at almost the same time when Joyce did.  Both of them suggest the new direction of the transition writers including Joyce who flied freely from the classical time-management in novel and approved the method of Finnegans Wake.  The transition, one of the American expatriate "little magazines," appeared in the middle of 1920s and lived the longest of them until 1938.  Of course it owed greatly to Eugene Jolas, but the major direction the magazine followed was shown in Joyce's "the anti-time sense."   The transition writers beat the classical concept of time admirably. 


  The "buginning" story becomes "void" or "woid," which is the beginning and also the end.  "In the buginning is the woid" meta-reflects the novel's circular structure that begins with "riverrun" and ends with "the": and then the readers recirculate back to "riverrun."   The insects were metaphorically scattered not only in this entomological chapter but also in other chapters.  In addition, the multi-lingual names of insects interwoven in the texture are associated with the multi-lingual portmanteau words of Finnegans Wake.  In this sense "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" chapter is an important key to solve the riddles and enigmas of the novel.
  Joyce utilized The Book of the Dead for his novel very significantly probably because it is a collection of the incantations for the resurrection and rebirth of the dead on the burial.  It is, needless to say, very suitable to the ballad of Tim Finnegan, especially for the motif of the death and the resurrection.  In the beginning of the novel, as Mark L. Troy notes, Finnegan falls into a "Mastabatoom"(FW6.10) that include not only the mastaba-tomb but also Bataou, a title of Osiris as the spirit or soul of bread (70).
  Moreover, The Book of the Dead is not a "night-book" as Finnegans Wake is, but rather a "day-book," because it was concerned not with death, but eternity; the dead were to awaken in the City of the Sun.25  Considering that the protagonist Earwicker was named after an insect's name, it is quite significant that this entomological chapter features The Book of the Dead, and is based on an Aesopian fable letting an insect tell a moral and is interwoven with numerous multi-lingual insects' names. 
  Joyce lived before the computer age.  The "bug" as recent technological term, however, means "A defect or fault in a machine, plan, or the like origin" (OED2).  Finnegans Wake can be regarded as "The Book of Bugs" because it is full of "bugs," in other words, Joyce's intentional misspellings of English words.  The readers have to analyze each word Joyce the programmer created and decide whether it contains a "bug" or not in order to translate it in various ways until they can manage to understand it.  The world of the "bugs" Joyce created, or the chronotope Earwicker lives in, is "void."  To read Finnegans Wake is to deconstruct the "bugs."  Or these earwigs would intrude into the ideal readers' "ears" who are "suffering from an ideal insomnia"(FW120.13-14), and would make them gwig."



This essay is based on the paper presented for "Finnegans Wake Workshop:
The Ondt and the Gracehoper: Bauck to Baugsic" at the 13th Japanese
James Joyce Conference on June 17, 2001, Aoyama-Gakuin University.

  1  Another conspicuous thing is the use of Danish or other North-European languages.
  2  Selected Letters of James Joyce, 329-32. 
  3  See the Penguin edition of Aesop's Fables (1998). The oldest Japanese translation(1659) 
     also contains "The Cicada and the Ant."
  4  See Yoshiko Nishimura, "Aesop's Fables," 26.
  5  Roland McHugh, Annotations to "Finnegans Wake," 414-19.
  6  Clive Hart, "His Good Smetterling of Entymology," 14-24.
  7  Sei Shonagaon, The Pillow-book, "No.30 Insects," 69-70.
  8  Daizaburo Okumoto, "Fabre: Discovering the Living Insects," 25.
  9  See the Penguin Aesop's Fables, "Introduction," x-xi.
10 Cf. the Penguin Aesop's Fables, "Introduction," xv.
11 Cf. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed., "Egypt."
12 Cf. Atherton, The Books at the Wake, 192. Atherton also notes that "it seems likely that 
     Joyce used the Papyrus of Ani, which is the best and fullest copy of The Book of the Dead in 
     the British Museum"(192). 
13 Cf. Budge, The Book of the Dead, plate XV.
14 Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed.  But the article "Egypt" only contains a very brief 
      explanation of The Book of the Dead, comparing with its fully-explanation of the Egyptian gods.
15 Budge, 4, 2n.
16 Clive Hart, "His Good Smetterling of Entymology," 14.
17 Cf. Arthur Power, Conversations with James Joyce, 48.
18 Cf. The Department of the Egyptian Antiquities, British Museum official site: 
19 See two letters to Harriet Shaw Weaver; dated March 15, 1924 (Letters, III, 90) and dated 
      September 26, 1926 (Letters, III, 142).
20 Danis Rose and John O'Hanlon, Understanding "Finnegans Wake,"  215-19.
21 Umberto Eco, The Aesthetics of Chaosmos: The Middle Ages of James Joyce, 70-74.  The 
      original title is "Le poetiche di James Joyce" in Opera Aperta (1962).
22 "The Proclamation," transition, 16/17 (1929).
23 Motoi Oda, Exodus of Arts, 120-21.  The English translation by Eishiro Ito.
24 Cf. Douglas McMillan, "transition" 1927-38, 48.
25 Cf. Eckley, 32.


Aesop.  The Complete Fables. Trans. Olivia & Robert Temple. Penguin Classics.  
      London: Penguin Books, 1998.
Atherton, James S.  The Books at the Wake.  Carbondale and Edwardsville: Southern 
      Illinois University Press, 1959.
Bishop, John.  Joyce's Book of the Dark.  Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1986.
British Museum, The.  (The official site: URL= http://www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk/).
Budge, E.A. Wallis. The Books of the Dead (1st ed.1895; 2nd ed.).  London: Kegan Paul, 
      Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1928.
Budgen, Frank.  "Joyce's Chapters of Going Forth By Day."  Horizon.  September 1941.  
      Reprinted Givens, Two Decades, 345-89.
Eckley, Grace.  Children's Lore in "Finnegans Wake."  New York: Syracuse University, 1985.
Eco, Umberto. The Aesthetics of Chaosmos: The Middle Ages of James Joyce. Cambridge, 
      MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed. 29 vols.  Cambridge, Eng: The University Press, 1910-11.
--------.  britannica 2001 (Deluxe CD Edition).  Chicago: Britannica.com, 2001.
Hart, Clive.  "His Good Smetterling of Entymology." A Wake Newslitter, vol.IV, no.1 
      (February 1967), 14-24.
Joyce, James. Finnegans Wake (1st ed.1939).  New York: The Viking Press, 1987.
--------.  The James Joyce Archive [JJA]. 63 vols.  General ed. Michael Groden. New York
      & London: Garland Publishing Inc., 1978.
--------.  Ed. Richard Ellmann.  Letters of James Joyce, vol. III.  New York: The Viking Press,
--------.  Ed. Richard Ellmann. Selected Letters of James Joyce. London: Faber and Faber,
Lewis, Wyndham. Time and Western Man.  Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press, 1993.
McHugh, Roland. Annotations to "Finnegans Wake." 2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins 
      University, 1991.
McMillan, Douglas.  "transition": The History of a Literary Era 1927-1938.  New York: George 
      Braziller, 1976.
Nishimura, Yoshiko.  "Aesop's Fables." World Literature 51: Greek Mythology and Aesop's 
      Fables. Tokyo: Weekly Asahi Encyclopedia, the July 9, 2000 issue.
Oda, Motoi.  Exodus of Arts. Tokyo: Kenkyusha, 1993.
Okumoto, Daizaburo.  "Fabre: Discovering the Living Insects.  World Literature 61: L'Assimmoir 
      & Une Vie. Tokyo: Weekly Asahi Encyclopedia, the Sept. 17, 2000 issue.
Power, Arthur.  Conversations with James Joyce.  Ed. Clive Hart.  London: Millington, 1974.
Rose, Danis and John O'Hanlon. Understanding "Finnegans Wake."  New York & London: 
      Garland Publishing Inc., 1982.
Sei Shonagon.  Trans. Ivan Morris.  The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon.  London: Penguin Books, 
Tindall, William York.  A Reader's Guide to "Finnegans Wake."  Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969.
Troy, Mark L.  Mummeries of Resurrection: The Cycle of Osiris in "Finnegans Wake."  Doctoral 
      Dissertation at the University of Uppsala, 1976.


Finnegans Wake 414.14-419.10
The Ondt and the Gracehoper
General Notes

List of Selected Abbreviations
[A] = McHugh, Roland. Annotations to "Finnegans Wake."
   2nd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University, 1991.
[AI] = Wall, Richard. An Anglo-Irish Dialect Glossary for Joyce's Works.
   Gerrards Cross: Colin Smythe, 1986.
[CL] = O Hehir, Brendan & John M. Dillon.  A Classical Lexicon for "Finnegans Wake."
   Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
[GaeL] = O Hehir, Brendan. A Gaelic Lexicon for "Finnegans Wake."
   Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
[GerL] = Bonheim, Helmut. A Lexicon of the German in "Finnegans Wake."
   Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967.
[MR] = Troy, Mark L.  Mummeries of Resurrection: The Cycle of Osiris in "Finnegans Wake."
   Doctoral Dissertation at the University of Uppsala, 1976.
[RG] = Tindall, William York.  A Reader's Guide to "Finnegans Wake."
   Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1969.
[SE] = Chiristiani, Dounia Bunis. Scandinavian Elements of "Finnegans Wake."
   Evanstone: Northwestern University Press, 1965.
[TC] = Glasheen, Adaline.  Third Census of "Finnegans Wake."
   Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977.
[TDP] = Burns, Edward M. with Joshua A. Gaylord eds.  A Tour of the Darkling Plain: 
   The "Finnegans Wake" Letters of Thornton Wilder and Adaline Glasheen.
   Dublin: University College Dublin Press, 2001.

Ondt and Gracehoper - a recension of La Fontaine's fable which proves Prudence is the Best Policy.  Joyce toes the original story line: spendthrift and life-enjoying Gracehoper (Shem) has fun with girls and dancing in this world, but is starved in heaven where the Prudent Manichean Ondt gets goodies and houris and will not feed hungry Gracehoper - see Dives and Lazarus.  The last jeer is with the Gracehoper (turned into one of those bards who jeered at close-fisted Irish kings) who says the rewards of prudence are second-hand girls.  Ondt is Danish "evil," is an anagram of "don't," is almost an anagram of Dante; "Ondt" is often aandt, Danish "spirit," "breath," "intellect" which ties Ondt to Wyndham Lewis (see also Nous).  For "Gracehoper," see Grace O'Malley and see Joyce's Dubliners story, "Grace": like "Grace," "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" is a kind of divine comedy.@ "The Ondt and the Gracehoper" is a companion fable to "The Mookse and the Gripes".  Vico held fable to be the work of a discontented slave class.  The prudence of the Ondt may owe much to Stanislaus Joyce.  The fable is filled with names of insects. [TC]

The FABLE of the Ondt and the Gracehoper, a delight in many languages, is considerably, if not predominantly, Danish.  Observe that Shaun, himself an Ondt "pain," characterizes Shem's "root" language in totally Norse?not rude?thunder and Shem in terms equally applicable to Ibsen.[SE]


414.14:    -- So vi et! we responded. Song! Shaun, song! Have mood!
                     So be it; Soviet [A]                       F chanson: song   Du moed:courage[A]
                    It it: you so you are [A]                    I Sean(shan):     Da Mod:courage[SE]
@@@@@@@         @(Abl.) vi + L et: with force and[CL]       John[GaeL] 

414.15:  Hold forth ! 
          Annals of the Theatre Royal, D 197: eViardot held forth' [A]

414.16:    -- I apologuise, Shaun began, but I would rather spinooze
                       apologue: allegorical story, fable [A]                             Spinoza [A]
                                                                                     Du spin: spider [A]

414.17:  you one from the grimm gests of Jacko and Esaup, fable one,
                          Jakob Grimm's fairy tales [A]     Jacob & Esau [A] Aesop's fable of the
                                              F gests: doings, exploits [A]  Ant &Grasshopper [A]
                                                                            G Aisopos: fabulist [A]

414.18:  feeble too. Let us here consider the casus, my dear little cousis
                                                               L casus: calamity[A]:       F cousin: gnat [A]
                                                               falling, overthrow;
                                                               error; event, accident;
                                                               occasion; case in grammar[A]
                                                              Gr kasis;(pl.) kasioi: brother(s)[CL]
                                                              emy dear little brothers in Christ' PIII [A]

414.19:  (husstenhasstencaffincoffintussemtossemdamandamnacosaghcusa-
              G Husten: cough[A][GerL]    coughing L tussem:cough[A][CL] L mandamus: I na casachta:of the
              G Hass: hate[GerL]                     It tosse:cough[A]      we command; cough[A][GaeL]
              G hast't: have a[GerL]                                         legal term[CL]  I cosach(kusokh):
              Da Hosten: coughing;                                         L-damna-; losses, footed[GaeL]
              F tousser: to cough[SE]                                      injuries;fines[CL] I Mac Iosoc(mokisok):
                                                                            son of Isaac; anglic. Cusack[GaeL]
414.20:  ghhobixhatouxpeswchbechoscashlcarcarcaract) of the Ondt and
                        F toux: We peswch: M Gr bex:  PS kasel: L carcer:   N ondt: hard, ill (*eangry)[A]
                        cough[A] cough[A] cough(pron. cough[A] prison[CL] Da Ondt:bad, evil(neuter adj.;
                                             ebix')[A][CL] ?Cathel[Gaze]       also adv.).[SE]+
                                              M Br bechos:                     Da aandt: spirit, breath, intellect,
                                              of a cough[A]                     which ties Ondt to W. Lewis.[TC]
          + In certain constructions ondt can mean " pain," corresponding to French mal, as in ondt i halsen, 
           mal a la gorge, a pain in the throat.[SE]

414.21:  the Gracehoper.
         N graeshoppe: grasshopper[A]

414.22:    The Gracehoper was always jigging ajog, hoppy on akkant
                                                           jigger: flea[A]     happy[A]  Kant[A][GerL]
                                                       Tunga penetrance[A]              account[A]
                                                                                        G Kante:edge[GerL]

414.23:  of his joyicity, (he had a partner pair of findlestilts to supplant
                                                                        fiddlesticks[A]      support[A]
                                   (grasshopper sings with scraping hind legs)[A]
                                   (Esau's twin Jacob supplants him; name eJacob' means esupplanter')[A]

414.24:  him), or, if not, he was always making ungraceful overtures to

414.25:  Floh and Luse and Bienie and Vespatilla to play pupa-pupa and
            G Floh: flea[A] Da lus: G     Biene:bee[A] L (artif.)vespatilla:        s Upa-Upa[A]
                            louse[A][SE]                 littlewasp[A][CL]       pupa: stage in insect 
                                                                                  L pupa: girl[A];doll[CL]
                                                                                  G Puppe: doll[GerL]

414.26:  pulicy-pulicy and langtennas and pushpygyddyum and to com-
       pulicine: pertaining to fleas[A]  antennae [A]          pigidium: terminal segment of insect [A]
                                        lawn tennis[A]      L *pygidium; a little rump, little buttocks[CL]
                                        G lang:long[A][GerL]

414.27:  mence insects with him, there mouthparts to his orefice and his
             commit incest [A] in sex [A]         their [A] mouthparts: modified appendages [A]
                        in sex [A]                          surrounding mouths of insects [A]

414.28:  gambills to there airy processes, even if only in chaste, ameng
            F Sl gambilles: legs [A]    hairy (= Esau) [A]                          jest [A]   among[A]
                                                                                              G Menge:
                                                                                              lot of, crowd

414.29:  the everlistings, behold a waspering pot. He would of curse
                    everlasting [A]                    watering [A]                     of course [A]
                  *eeverlistings = laurel bushes' [A] (pot with jam in bottom used to trap wasps)

414.30:  melissciously, by his fore feelhers, flexors, contractors, depres-
              Gr mellissa: bee[A][CL]          feelers (antennae) [A] flexors, contractors, depressors and
              maliciously [A]
              Da Melis: granulated 
              sugar: L mel;mellis:

414.31:  sors and extensors, lamely, harry me, marry me, bury me, bind
           extensors: types of muscles [A] namely [A]   (Viconian cycle) [A]

414.32:  me, till she was puce for shame and allso fourmish her in Spin-
                                  *F puce: flea [A]                   F fourmit: ant [A]  G Spinner:
                                                                      furnish [A]         silkworm[A]

414.33:  ner's housery at the earthsbest schoppinhour so summery as his
                      hosiery[A]                        Schopenhauer[A]
       NPN: Spinoza(+spider)[Gaze]                    shopping hour[A]

414.34:  cottage, which was cald fourmillierly Tingsomingenting, groped
                                called[A]  *F fourmiliere: ant hill[A] Da en ting som ingen ting:
                              It calso: hot[A] familiarly[A]           a thing like no thing [A];[SE]
                              L caldus:warm, L formicalis:resembling   FW183.06: "stinksome
                              hot[CL]       the crawling of ants[CL]  inkenstink"[SE]  ting

414.35:  up. Or, if he was always striking up funny funereels with Bester-
                                                                           funerals+ reels  Da bedstefar:
                                                                           (cycle ¨Vico)   grand father [A][SE]
                                                                                            trans. Pater Optimus
                                                                                            Best Father: title of
                                                                                            of Jupiter[CL]
*Joyce would have been aware that a danced "reel" was after a part of the resurrection process as envisioned by 
the ancient Egyptians.[MR31]

414.36:  farther Zeuts, the Aged One, With all his wigeared corollas, albe-
                   Zeus [A] Egyptian Book of the Dead cxli:               earwig[A]  corolla: ring  L albedo:
               G Zeit: time [A]  ethe Aged One, i.e. Ra' [A]                           of petals[A] whiteness[A]
               Gr Zeus: "Sky," "Day":chief god of the Greeks;#A[CL]                 L corolla:
*letter, 26/3/28, to HSW.


415.01:  dinous and oldbuoyant, inscythe his elytrical wormcasket and
           Gr mind, intellect[CL]                  inside his electrical[A]
                                                    Gr elytron:covering;
                                                    shard of a beetle's 
                                                    wing [CL]
                                       Father Time's scythe[A] elytra: hardened wing cases of beetles[A]

415.02:  Dehlia and Peonia, his druping nymphs, bewheedling him, com-
        Delia & Peona in Keats' Endymion[A]  drupe:     nymph:immmature bewildering  insect's compound
                dahlia and peony [A]    stone fruit[A] nonmetamorphosing            eyes[A]
            Gr&L Delia: Diana,  Gr paionia:   L drupa:     insect [A] 
             from her birth on   L paeonia:   Gr druppa    Gr nymphe:bride,
             Delos [CL]       "belonging to  olive[CL]    young girl,etc.[CL]
                               Paion/Paeon  G drupepes
                               [god of medicine]": tree-
                               the peony [CL]  ripened[CL]                                       C

415.03:  pound eyes on hornitosehead, and Auld Letty Plussiboots to
                                    hornet [A]                   old       Puss-in-Boots (pantomime)[A]
                                    hornito: mound of volcanic origin[A]
                        E         H                           A     L       P

415.04:  scratch his cacumen and cackle his tramsitus, diva deborah (seven
                           L cacumen: summit,   tickle[A]     transitus:   diva: prima   Heb deborah:
                           top end [A][CL]                  windpipe[A] donna (from L  bee [A]
                           cocoon [A]                      L transitus: goddess)[A][CL]
                           We cacynen: wasp [A]           a going over, 
                          L cacumen:extreme end,          passage[CL]
                          extremity, point[CL]

415.05:  bolls of sapo, a lick of lime, two spurts of fussfor, threefurts of
            It bolle di sapone:                                         Da fosfor:      Gr Furz: fart [A]
            soap bubbles [A]                                          phosphorus[A][SE]
            boll weevil [A]                                           Venus: "Phosphorus"
           L sapo:soap[CL]                                                        [Gaze]

415.06:  sulph, a shake o'shouker, doze grains of migniss and a mesfull of
             sulphur [A]      G Zucker:sugar[A][GerL] F douze [A]    maginesium [A]   Du mes: knife[A]
                         (possibly based on composition of human body) [A]

415.07:  midcap pitchies. The whool of the whaal in the wheel of the
              madcap[A]  pitchcap[A]              s eThe flea on the hair of the 
                                                              G Wal:whale[GerL]
                                                              G Wahl: choice[GerL]

415.08:  whorl of the Boubou from Bourneum has thus come to taon!),
       tail of the dog of the nurse of the child of the wife of the wild man from Borneo has just come to town'[A]
                                                     Borneo[Gaze]                    F taon: gadfly [A]
                                                                                       I aon(en): one[GaeL]

415.09:  and with tambarins and cantoridettes soturning around his eggs-
                            tambarines [A]       Cantharides:       Saturnia:moth gegus[A]   exile[A]
                                                 gegus of beetles[A]  Saturn[Gaze]             axle[A]
                                                 It canto: song[A] 
L cantor: singer, poet [CL]

415.10:  hill rockcoach their dance McCaper in retrophoebia, beck from
                   R rogach: stag beetle [A] Saint-Saens: Danse Macabre[A] (Phoebe: moon of   Beck: expounder
                   cockroach (Periplaneta, gegus of cockroaches)[A]       Saturn; retrograde   of Kant [A]
                                                    Mac Caba(mok kabe):  rotation [A][Gaze]  back to back[A]
                                                    anglic. McCabe[GaeL]  phobia [A]         I beach: bee[A]
                                                    Capricorn[Gaze]       L *retrophoebia:    G Becken:pelvis,
                                                                            a backward[ness] of  bowl[GerL]
                                                                            Phoebus [Apollo: the  G dial. Beck:
                                                                            sun]; reversal of the   baker[GerL]
                                                                            sun [CL]

415.11:  bulk, like fantastic disossed and jenny aprils, to the ra, the ra, the
            Valentin Le Desosse & Jane Avril painted by Toulouse-Lautrec [A]  Ra: Egyptian sun-god [A]
                                          diseased [A]               Rigoletto:   eLa, ra, la ra, la ra' [A]

415.12:  ra, the ra, langsome heels and langsome toesis, attended to by a
                           G langsam:slow[A][GerL]                  L tussis:a cough[CL]
                           Da langsom: slow[SE]

415.13:  mutter and doffer duffmatt baxingmotch and a myrmidins of
          G Mutter[A][GerL]         Butt & Taff [A] boxing match[A]  Myrmica: genus of ants[A]
                                      deafmute [A]                      murmur [A]
                                      I dubh(duv):                      Myrmidons at Troy [A]
                                      black[GaeL]                      Gr Myrmidones: a people of
                                      G matt:lifeless,                    Thessaly; in Iliad, flowers of
                                      mate(chess)                       Achilles[CL]
                                            [GerL]                     Gr myrmedon: ants' nest[CL]

415.14:  pszozlers pszinging Satyr's Caudledayed Nice and Hombly,
               sozzlers singing[A]       Satyr:genus of butterflies[A] 
            Po pszczola: bee[A]         Gr Satyros:    caudle: a warm drink[A]
                                      the god Dionysos;
                                      spirit of wildlife
                                      in the woods, 
                                      bestial and goatlike;
                                      lewd person; kind 
                                      of ape [CL]               nr eHumpty Dumpty sat on a wall' [A]
                                      Saturn[Gaze]             Burns: Cottar's Saturday Night [A]

415.15:  Dombly Sod We Awhile but Ho, Time Timeagen, Wake! @For if
                                                  s Tim Finnegan's Wake [A] A.I. pron. weak[AI]

415.16:  sciencium (what's what) can mute uns nought, 'a thought,
             L silentium [A]                                  G uns:us[A][GerL]
            L *scientium as if sing. : 
            knowledge, skill,
            expertness, science[CL]

415.17:  abought the Great Sommboddy within the Omniboss, perhops an
                                                 I bod(bud):             omnibus; for every-
                                                penis[GaeL]             one, everything[A][CL]
"The Great Sommboddy within the Omniboss" must be the sleeper, dreamer, H.C.E., and God.[RG]

415.18:  artsaccord (hoot's hoot) might sing ums tumtim abutt the Little
              harpsichord [A]  Who's Who [A]                          something about [A]
              Art Accord & Hoot Gibson: cowboy actors [A]

415.19:  Newbuddies that ring his panch. A high old tide for the bar-
              nobodies[A]                         paunch[A]                time[A]       berated[A]
              I bod(bud)[GaeL]

415.20:  heated publics and the whole day as gratiis! Fudder and lighting
          ME barrat: deception[A]            L Deo gratis: thanks to God[A]   thunder & lightning[A]
                                              L Deus gratiis: God, out of kind-  G Vater: father;
                                              ness; God, for nothing; God gra-  G Futter:fodder
                                              tuitously; God into the bargain[CL]       [GerL]

415.21:  for ally looty, any filly in a fog, for O'Cronione lags acrumbling
              G alle Leute:      Anopheles, Cronos dethroned by Zeus, his son[A][CL]
              everyone[A][GerL] gegus of                    Gr chronos: time [A]
                                 mosquitoes                  I O Cronin(o kronin): 
                                        [A]                   des. Croinin(dim. of 
                                                               cron, "swarthy"); anglic.
                                                               O Cronin[GaeL]

415.22:  in his sands but his sunsunsuns still tumble on. Erething above
   s eJohn Brown's body lies a moudering in the grave but his soul is marching on' [A] Heb eres: earth [A]
                                         C sun: descendants, grandchildren [A]  anything on earth [A]
                                        *sons, son's, suns: original sungod was Helios; his son Phaiton, drove 
                                        the sun with disastrous results; Helios became identified with Apollo,
                                        whose father Zeus was the son of Kronos son of Ouranos/Uranus(the 
                                         sky) [CL]
*The three "sons of the sun god": cf. "sun-yet-sun"(FW90.01)[MR63]

415.23:  ground, as his Book of Breathings bed him, so as everwhy, sham
                             Book of Breathings: a funeral ritual  bade[A]                        Shem
                             in the Egyptian Book of the Dead[A]

415.24:  or shunner, zeemliangly to kick time. 
              or Shaun [A]    seemingly to kill time [A]
                               R zemlya: the earth [A]
                               C liang: to excuse [A]

415.25:    Grouscious me and scarab my sahul! What a bagateller it is!
                  gracious me! [A]       Egyptian sacred  my soul [A]              bagatelle [A] 
                                          scarabs (beetle)[A]  sahu: habitation of the soul,   G Teller:plate
                                                               in Egyptian theology[A]             [GerL]
                                          I sabhall(sal):barn, granary[GaeL] Tingsomingenting[Gaze]
   *Both the grouse and the scrab are symbols of rebirth and immortality.[MR81]

415.26:  Libelulous! Inzanzarity! Pou! Pschla! Ptuh! What a zeit for the
              libellous [A]    insincerity [A] F pou:louse[A] Da sommerfugal: What a sight for the gods![A]
              Libellula:genus Po pscla:flea[A] butterfly[A]          Ptah: Egyp-     G zeit:time
              of dragonflies[A]   It zanzara:gnat[A]                tian god[A]      [A][GerL]
              L libellulus:a very  Gr (Doric-Ionic): 
              little book[CL]     Zeus: chief G 

415.27:  goths! vented the Ondt, who, not being a sommerfool, was
                                                             G Sommer: summer
                                                             G Sommervogel:butterfly[GerL]
                                                             Da Sommerfugl(pron. summer fool):

415.28:  thothfolly making chilly spaces at hisphex affront of the icinglass
              thoughtfully making silly faces at himself in front of the looking-glass of his window [A]
              Thoth: Egyptian god of wisdom[A]               Sphex: genus of           isinglass: a variety
              I toth(to): female; female organs[GaeL]           solitary wasps[A]        of gelatine[A]
                                                                Gr sphex: wasp[CL]

415.29:  of his windhame, which was cold antitopically Nixnixundnix.
                       Wyndham Lewis[A]             called[A] anti-tropical(cold)[A] G nix(nights): 
                                                                  Gr *antitopikos:     nothing[A][GerL]
                                                                  contrary to local[CL] L nix: snow[A][CL]
                                                                                        G und: and[GerL]

415.30:  We shall not come to party at that lopp's, he decided possibly, 
                                                          N&Da loppe: flea[A][SE]

415.31:  for he is not on our social list. Nor to Ba's berial nether, thon
                      (ant is a esocial insect')[A]          Ba: Egyptian heart-soul        Ulster thon:that[A];
                                                          & god of the 11th hour [A]      Cf.U14.1523[AI]
                                                                      Prov 6:6: eGo to the ant, thou sluggard' [A]
*Ba: The soul, eternal and finally divine, preserved in the mummy.  Atherton says in Middle Egypt also the God of Sluggards (FW415.32 sloghard)[TDP421]

415.32:  sloghard, this oldeborre's yaar ablong as there's a khul on a khat.
                                   Da oldenborre: Heb yaar:    as long as there's a tail on a cat [A]
                                   cockchafer[A][SE]                             honeycomb[A]
                                                                                  L culus:
                                                                                  I cul(kul):
                                                                                  back of the
                                           In Egyptian theology ab:heart; khu;soul; khat:body [A]

415.33:  Nefersenless, when he had safely looked up his ovipository, he
           nevertheless [A]                            locked[A]          repository [A]
         Nefer-sent: Egyptian city[A]                               L *ovipositor:eggplacer[CL]
         G Fersen: heels[GerL]                                     ovipositor:insect's egg-
         Nefer-sent[Gaze]                                         laying structure[A]
*Nefersenless: Nefer-Tem: Budge Book of the Dead (I think pages 370 and 595), the God addressed in the negative confession.  He is the lotus in the nostrils of Ra.[TDP421]

415.34:  loftet hails and prayed: May he me no voida water! Seekit Ha-
              lifted hands[A]                           Gr Menon   avoid[A]           Sekhet Hetep: 
              Da lofte: raise[A];                        Meno:   Book of the Dead lxviii: Egyptian Elysian
              promise, vow[SE]                        Platonic  ehe voideth water'[A]   Fields[A][Gaze]
                                                       dialogue on  PS voda: water[A]   L sicut habet:
                                                       on learning[CL]                   just as he has[CL]
                                                                                         Cf. FW454.34.

415.35:  tup! May no he me tile pig shed on! Suckit Hotup! As broad as
                 Gr Menon:     G teil:divide, pigshit on [A]      Sekhet Hetep
                cf .415.34[CL]   G Anteil:    Gr pygidion:
                                 share[GerL]  little rump[CL]

415.36:  Beppy's realm shall flourish my reign shall flourish! As high as
              Egypt: Pepi II[Gaze]
 inscription on pyramid of Pepi II [A]: Budge's Book of the Dead LXIII quotes the pyramid text of King Pepi: "If the name of 
{NUT or OSIRIS} flourisheth, the name of Pepi.... shall flourish and this his pyramid flourish."[TDP210&421]
*Beppy: Fritz Senn: citizen of Basel; Swiss-German for Father: also Italian nickname for Joseph or Hosepha..... Also FW499.04: Bappy.[TDP210]


416.01:  Heppy's hevn shall flurrish my haine shall hurrish! Shall grow,
              Hapi:Egyptian god[A] heaven               F haine: hatred[A] Hurrish the sweep: last man
                         Da havn: vengence[A]            U: Haines[A]     flogged through streets of D [A]
*Heppy: Hapi: dog-headed, one of the four Amentis, child of Horus-- Budge says in a later text personification of the Nile.[TDC421]; Hep; Hapi; Heppis; See FW026.09&20-24, 443,10, 478.23, 479.32-33 and 480.18.[TDP424]

416.02:  shall flourish! Shall hurrish! Hummum. 
                                                        Amen [A]
                                                        (humming insect) [A]

416.03:    The Ondt was a weltall fellow, raumybult and abelboobied, 
                                       G Weltall:          G Raum: space[A][GerL]   ablebodied[A]
                                       universe[A][GerL]           Du bult:hump, hill[A]

416.04:  bynear saw altitudinous wee a schelling in kopfers. He was sair
             G beinah so... wie:almost as...as[A]          tall as a shilling in coppers[A]         G sehr[A][GerL]
                                                          Schellin [A][GerL] G Kopf:head       Arab tsartsur:
                                                          G Schelle:bell[GerL]  [A][GerL]       cockroach[A]

416.05:  sair sullemn and chairmanlooking when he was not making spaces
             Heb sol'am:locust[A]     German looking[A]                        G Spass machen:
            s Sir, Sir Solomon[A]       F charmant[A]                            make jokes[A][GerL]

416.06:  in his psyche, but, laus ! when he wore making spaces on his ikey,
           Psyche: genus of moths[A] G Laus: louse[A][GerL]                      Gr eikon: image[A][CL]
           Gr psyche: soul(Freud)[A] L laus: praise[A][CL]                        Sl ikey:smart,artful[A]
                                                                                    his ikey: Gr psyche:
                                                                                    as above[CL]

416.07:  he ware mouche mothst secred and muravyingly wisechairman-
                         F mouche[A]  moth     sacred       R muravei:ant[A]    Germany[Gaze]
                                                  secret                 Moravia[Gaze]

416.08:  looking. Now whim the sillybilly of a Gracehoper had jingled
                              Du Wim:William[A]

416.09:  through a jungle of love and debts and jangled through a jumble
                                                life & death[A]
                                      s Liebestod (elove-death,' in Tristan und Isolde III.3)

416.10:  of life in doubts afterworse, wetting with the bimblebeaks, drik-
                                      afterwords[A]  wedding[A]              bumblebees[A]   Da drikke:
                                                      G wetten: to              I beach: bee[A]  drink[A][SE]

416.11:  king with nautonects, bilking with durrydunglecks and horing
                           Notonecta: genus of aquatic, bilk:deceive[A]  daddy-longlegs[A]    Da hor:
                          ewater-boatmen'[A]                      derry down(song refrain)    adultery[A]
                           L nauta: sailor[CL]                     I Doire(diri) Oakwood;      G horen:
                          Gr+L *autonex: suicide[CL]              N. city & co., anglic.        listen[GerL]
                          L nectar:Gr nektar: drink,               Derry[GaeL][Gaze]
                          food of the gods[CL]                     I Dun Leicne(dun lekni):
                          L necto: to tie, etc.[CL]                  Fort of Flagstones; town,
                                                                   Co. Carlow anglic. Dun-
                                                                   G Ungluck:misfortune[GerL]
                                                                   G leck-:lick, leak[GerL]

416.12:  after ladybirdies (ichnehmon diagelegenaitoikon) he fell joust as
             Sl ladybirds:lewd women[A]   G ich nehme die Gelegenheit:  Gr oikon:      felt just[A]
                                  I assume the opprtunity[A][GerL]      house[A][CL]
                                  ichneumons: parasitic  Gr diagelao:  Gr aiteo: to
                                  wasps[A];Gr Egyptian  to laugh at,   ask for, beg,
                                  rat, destroys crocodiles' mock, deride  demand[CL]
                                  eggs[CL]                      [CL]   Gr aitios: cul-
                                                                         pable;the cause

416.13:  sieck as a sexton and tantoo pooveroo quant a churchprince, and
              sick[A] sexton beetle[A] It tanto povero quanto: as poor as[A] ph as poor as a church mouse[A]
              G siech: infirm Satan[A]  L tantus: of such size,        Kant[A]
                  [A][GerL]            so great in amount[CL]
                                        L tanto: by how much,
                                        by as much as[CL]

416.14:  wheer the midges to wend hemsylph or vosch to sirch for grub
                                                    himself[A]   R vosh:louse[A] search[A] grub(larva)[A]
                                                   *sylph[A]                      Li sirse:    G vergrab-:
                                                   ModL sylphes                  wasp[A]    bury[GerL]
                                                   immortal, soul-                            G grub:dug
                                                   less being of al-                                [GerL]
                                                   L silvestris:
                                                   nymphs of
                                                   the woods[CL]

416.15:  for his corapusse or to find a hospes, alick, he wist gnit! Bruko
                         carapace[A]                  hospice[A]                     nits[A]  Cz brouk:
                         L corpus:                    L hospes:               Du wist niet:    beetle[A]
                        body[CL]                      he who                knew not[A]     It bruco:
                                                       entertains              G wis nit(weiss  caterpillar[A]
                                                       a stranger:             nicht):doesn't
                                                       host,etc[CL]            know[GerL]

416.16:  dry! fuko spint! Sultamont osa bare! And volomundo osi vide-
            G drei: It fuco: spent[A] Sp saltamontes: R osa:wasp[A] (whole world also empty)    L vide:
             three  drone           grasshopper[A] R osi:wasps[A]   L volo:1.I wish,  L Osi: see![CL]
            [GerL] (insect)                          L os, pl. ora:      will; 2.I fly[CL]  a people
                    [A]                              mouth,face[CL]         L mundo:  of Ger-
                                                     L ossum, pl.ossa:        I make     many[CL]
                                                     bone[CL]                clean[CL]
                                                     Da Ogsaa:also[SE]       G Mund:

416.17:  vide! Nichtsnichtsundnichts! Not one pickopeck of muscow-
                     G nichts und: nothing and[GerL]      kopeck:Russian coin[A]   Moscow[Gaze]
                     Nixnixundnix[Gaze]                                             Musca: genus of flies[A]
                                                                                      L musca: a fly[CL]

416.18:  money to bag a tittlebits of beebread! Iomio! Iomio! Crick's
                              buy a little bits      beebread:mixture   Io, chased by Zeus as gadfly
                                     Titbits        of honey & pollen[A] when cow[A][CL]
eMoscow gold' supposedly given to European socialists[A]          It Dio mio!: my God![A]
                                                                    L io!: ho! hurra! look![CL]
                                                                    Romeo & Juliet II.2.33: 
eRomeo, Romeo'[A]

416.19:  corbicule, which a plight! O moy Bog, he contrited with melan-
              corbicula:structure Da Hvilken; Da hvilken: R o moi bog: O my God[A]  Melanchthon:
              on bee's leg which  (neuter) also mean      I mogh bog(ma bug):        German theologian[A]
              carries pollen [A]  "which"[SE]            boggy plain[GaeL]           Gr *melanchthon:
              L corbicula:                                                              black earth[CL]
              little basket[CL]                                                          Gr *melanotholos:
              L corviculus:                                                             black mud[CL]
              little raven[CL]

416.20:  ctholy. Meblizzered, him sluggered! I am heartily hungry!
                                                 sluggard(Prov 6.6)[A]
                                                 Sw slug:fly[A]

416.21:    He had eaten all the whilepaper, swallowed the lustres, de-
                                               wallpaper[A]                   G Luster:chandeliers[A][GerL]
                                               while (time)[A]                  *lustre: 5 years [lustral][A]

416.22:  voured forty flights of styearcases, chewed up all the mensas and
                               Sl flights of steps: thick year[A]                     L mensa: table[A][CL]
                               slice of bread & butter[A]                           months[A][CL]
                                              Gr stear:suet, 
                                              L sterus:dung[CL]
                                              L caseus:cheese[CL]

416.23:  seccles, ronged the records, made mundballs of the ephemerids
             F siecles:centuries[A]                            mothballs[A]    Ephemeridae:mayflies[A][CL]
             L saecula: centuries,                          G Mund:mouth[A][GerL] Gr ephemeris: day-book,
             ages, lifetimes[CL]                            mandibles:insect's       diary account-book,
                                                            jaws[A]                  journal[CL]
                                                            L mundus:leanliness; 
                                                            toilette; the universe

416.24:  and vorasioused most glutinously with the very timeplace in the
                  Li voras: spider[A]            gluttonously[A]                   timepiece[A]
                                                L gluten: glue[CL]

416.25:  ternitary -- not too dusty a cicada of neutriment for a chittinous
           termitary: termites' nest[A]      cicada: type of arboreal G neu:new[GerL] chitinous:containing chitin,
          *eternity[A]                      bug with loud song[A]                  ingredient in insect cuticle[A]
           L terni: three each three[CL]

416.26:  chip so mitey. But when Chrysalmas was on the bare branches,
              chap[A]   mites[A]                 Christmas[A] + chrysanthemums
                 so might he[A]                   chrysalis[A][CL]
                                                  Gr chrysallis:
                                                  a family of beetles[A]

416.27:  off he went from Tingsomingenting. He took a round stroll and
                                        L mingo: to urinate[CL]
                                        L ingens: vast[CL]
                                        cf. FW414.34[SE]

416.28:  he took a stroll round and he took a round strollagain till the

416.29:  grillies in his head and the leivnits in his hair made him thought
         It aver grilli in capo: to have a bee          live nits[A]
         in one's bonnet (lit. have crickets           Leibnitz[A]
         in the head) [A]
         Gr gryllos;L gryllus: grasshopper,
         cricket [CL]
         G Grille: cricket; whim,  sad

416.30:  he had the Tossmania. Had he twicycled the sees of the deed
                               Tasmania[Gaze]                                seas of the dead[A]
                              Da Tosse: fool[SE]                               Dead Sea[Gaze]
                              Gr mania: madness[CL] 
*eTasmania, he stands on his head to be really "antipodal"'[A]
*Tasmania; compare "van Demon's Land"(FW056.21).

416.31:  and trestraversed their revermer? Was he come to hevre with his
                    It tre:3[A]                  It verme:grub, maggot[A]             heaven[A][Gaze]
                                                                                       Le Havre[A][Gaze]
                                                                                       F havre [A]

416.32:  engiles or gone to hull with the poop? The June snows was
              angels[A] eTo hell with the pope'(Protestant slogan)[A][AI]
              engines[A]              Hull[A][Gaze]  Uls. poop: pope[AI]

416.33:  flocking in thuckflues on the hegelstomes, millipeeds of it and
                                    Da flue:fly[A][SE]   hailstones[A]     L mille pedes: a
                                                         Hegel[A][GerL]   thousand feet[CL]
                                                         G Hagel: hail[GerL]

416.34:  myriopoods, and a lugly whizzling tournedos, the Boraborayel-
              myriapods[A]           *It Luglio:July tornado[A]                Bora:Adriatic wind[A]
            Gr myrioi podes:  *etournedos (we turn our back to the wind)'[A]   Bora Bora:one of the Society
           ten thousand feet                                                     Islands(Polynesia)[A][Gaze]
                      [CL]                                                      *Aurora borealis : northwind
                                                                                  Port borboleta:butterfly[A]
                                                Bora: mountain in Macedonia[CL]
                                                                                 L [Forum] Boarium: the cattle-
                                                                                 market in Rome[CL]

416.35:  ]ers, blohablasting tegolhuts up to tetties and ruching sleets off
                     R bloha:flea[A]   Du tegel:tile[A][SE]   tatters[A]     G rutschen:to  slates[A]
                                       *etilehats:tall hats'[A] etetties It roofs  slide[A][GerL]
                                       G Tegel: bluish green   also dial.      F ruche:
                                       marl[GerL]           breasts'[A]    beehive[A]
                                       G Hut: hat[GerL]                    G (Ge)ruch:

416.36:  the coppeehouses, playing ragnowrock rignewreck, with an irri-
                    coffeehouses[A]              ON Ragnarokr: Destruction of the Norse gods[A]
                   ecoppe=rooftiles(It. dial)'      It ragno:spider[A]
                   *letter,26/3/28, to HSW        Da Ragnarok[SE]


417.01:  tant, penetrant, siphonopterous spuk. Grausssssss! Opr!
      Pulex irritans & Tunga penetrans: Siphonaptera:fleas[A]G Spuk: G Graus:horror  G Oper:
      fleas [A]                       Gr siphon:tube, pipe; ghost;@    grasshopper[A]   opera
                                     mosquito[CL]        uproar,     Gr graus: old     [GerL]
                                     Gr *siphonopteros:   noise[A];   woman[CL]
                                     (tube)-winged[CL]   G spuck:
  *The springing grouse and grasshopper are found in the same image.[MR82]

417.02:  Grausssssss! Opr!
            see 417.01 D[CL] (chirping)[A]

417.03:    The Gracehoper who, though blind as batflea, yet knew, not
                                                             ph blind as a bat[A]

417.04:  a leetle beetle, his good smetterling of entymology asped niss-
                 little  bit[A]                stattering[A]        entomology[A][CL] asked[A] G Nisse:
                                              G Schmetterling:    etymology[A][CL]           nit[A]

417.05:  unitimost lous nor liceens but promptly tossed himself in the
                       neither leave nor licence[A]
              It nessunissimo:          cf. "Ivy Day":
              not a single one[A]       shoneens[AI]
            L unitas: oneness, unity[CL]
            L *unissimus: onliest[CL]

417.06:  vico, phthin and phthir, on top of his buzzer, tezzily wondering
              Vico[A]       then & there[A]                                   dizzily[A]
             (Abl.) by,   Gr phthino:  Gr phtheir:
             with or     to perish    a louse[CL]
             from a     (021.18) [A] 
             village[CL]  to decay[CL]

417.07:  wheer would his aluck alight or boss of both appease and the

417.08:  next time he makes the aquinatance of the Ondt after this they
                                              L Aquinates:
                                              inhabitants of 
                                              Auinium, town in
                                              Latium, now Aquino
                                              [St. Thomas's birth-

417.09:  have met themselves, these mouschical umsummables, it shall be
                                                  musical ensemble[A]
                                                  musichall[A] G umsummen:buzz around[A][GerL]
                                                  F mouche[A] Aquinas:Summa contra Gentiles[A]

417.10:  motylucky if he will beheld not a world of differents. Behailed
              mighty lucky[A]                                                             behold[A]
             R motylek:butterfly[A]

417.11:  His Gross the Ondt, prostrandvorous upon his dhrone, in his
                  G gross:great            prostrate[A] R dvor:court[A]         throne(W.C.)[A]
                     [A][GerL]            R prostranstvo:space[A]              drone[A]
                  Grace[A]                L prostrandus: [one] to be over-      I dron(dron): upright;
                                           thrown, to be subverted[CL]          I dronn(droun):
                                           L *prostrandivorus: feeding on       hump on the back[GaeL]
                                           those to be overthrown[CL]

417.12:  Papylonian babooshkees, smolking a spatial brunt of Hosana
             L papilio:butterfly[A] pampooties[A]  smoking       a special blend of Havana cigars[A]
             Babylinian[A][Gaze]  babochka:butterfly[A]        (space)[A]  brand[A]
             L papilio: butterfly,   babouche:Turkish or 
             moth[CL]             Oriental slipper[A]

417.13:  cigals, with unshrinkables farfalling from his unthinkables, 
             F cigale:cicada[A] Wilde on fox hunters: ethe unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable'[A]
                              *eunshrinkables=pyjamas'[A] It farfalla:butterfly[A]
                                                     G verfallen: to 

417.14:  swarming of himself in his sunnyroom, sated before his com-
             eSwarming of=Ger to                                     AI pron.
             be enthusiastic over                                      seated[AI]
             (i.e. himself)'[A]

417.15:  fortumble phullupsuppy of a plate o'monkynous and a confucion
                              philosophy[A]            plate of monkey nuts[A]           confession
                              full up[A]                Plato[A][CL] Gr nous: mind[CL]  confusion
                                         * eNous rational intelligence of monasticism'[A]  Confucius[A]

417.16:  of minthe (for he was a conformed aceticist and aristotaller), as
             of mind "infusion de menthe"[A]                   L acetum: vinegar[CL]   Aristotle[A][CL]
   Minthe: nymph turned into that                                      Gr aristos: best[CL]
             plant by Proserpine[A]                 Ants secrete formic and acetic acids for defence[A]

417.17:  appi as a oneysucker or a baskerboy on the Libido, with Floh
              happy[A]      honeysuckle[A]                       L libido:desire[A][CL]  L flos: blossom,
             eapi=Ital. bee'[A]                                    *Lido[A][Gaze]          flower[CL]
                                                                                            G Floh:flea[GerL]

417.18:  biting his leg thigh and Luse lugging his luff leg and Bieni bussing
              right[A]                                  hugging[A]    left[A]           Arch buss:kiss[A]
                                                                                         G Biene:bee[GerL]

417.19:  him under his bonnet and Vespatilla blowing cosy fond tutties
                                                     L *vespatilla:             Mozart: Cosi Fan Tutte [A]
                                                     little wasp[CL]

417.20:  up the allabroad length of the large of his smalls. As entomate
                                                                         Gr entoma:insects[A][CL]

417.21:  as intimate could pinchably be. Emmet and demmet and be jiltses
                                         possibly[A]      emmet: ant[A]    damn it![A]           Jesus[A]
                                  Robert Emmet                            Japanese

417.22:  crazed and be jadeses whipt! schneezed the Gracehoper, aguepe
              Christ[A]      eBy Jaysus wept'[A         sneezed                               agape[A]
                              Sl jade:whore[A]        G Schnee:snow[A][GerL]            F guepe:wasp[A] 

417.23:  with ptchjelasys and at his wittol's indts, what have eyeforsight!
                  jealousy[A]            ph at his wits' end[A] in debts  G Eifersucht:jealousy[A][GerL]
                 R pchela:bee[A]        wittol: a conniving cuckold[A]  Du wat heb ik voorzegd:
                                                                         didn't I tell you [A]

417.24:    The Ondt, that true and perfect host, a spiter aspinne, was
                                                                           spider G Spinne:spider[A][GerL]

417.25:  making the greatest spass a body could with his queens lace-
                                          G Spass:joke[A][GerL]             (queen ant) lacewing 
                                                                              (in order Neuroptera)[A]

417.26:  swinging for he was spizzing all over him like thingsumanything
                                           espizz=Ital. dialect=itch'[A]          Tingsomingenting[A][Gaze]
                                           G spitzig:acute, sarcastic[GerL]
                                           G spritzen:squirt[GerL]

417.27:  in formicolation, boundlessly blissfilled in an allallahbath of
                  formication:sensation of ants[A]                              Allah[A]
                  It formicolazione:tingling[A]
                  L formico: to crawl like an ant[CL]
                  L formicula: little ant[CL]

417.28:  houris. He was ameising himself hugely at crabround and mary-
              houri: nymph of the amusing[A] amazing                 Sp crabron:hornet[A] Sp mariposa:
     Mohammedan paradise[A]    G Ameisen:ants[A][GerL]                                  butterfly[A]
                                    G Meise: titmouse[GerL]

417.29:  pose, chasing Floh out of charity and tickling Luse, I hope too,
                                  G Floh:flea[GerL]                            Da Lus: lose[SE]
*Compare the association of "Floh" and "Luse" also in FW414.25.

417.30:  and tackling Bienie, faith, as well, and jucking Vespatilla jukely
                                 G Biene:bee[GerL]               G jucken:to itch[A][GerL]   G jucke-:
                                                                   R zhuk:beetle[A]            itch[GerL]

417.31:  by the chimiche. Never did Dorsan from Dunshanagan dance it
              chemise[A] chimney[A]   I dorsan:grasshopper[A][GaeL] I Dun Seangain:Ant's Fort[A]
             It cimice: bedbug[A]                                                       [GaeL][Gaze]
             Sp chinche: bedbug[A]                                    I seangan(shanegan): ant[GaeL]

417.32:  with more devilry! The veripatetic imago of the impossible
                                             veritable image [A]
                                             peripatetic[A] imago:adult insect[A]
                                            Gr peripatetikos:  L imago:imitation[A]
                                             given to walking   : copy; phantom; 
                                             about, esp. while   image; echoe; imagi-
                                             teaching or disput- nation; similitude[CL]
                                             ing: Aristotle's 
                                             school of philosophy
                                             L+Gr *veripatetikos:

417.33:  Gracehoper on his odderkop in the myre, after his thrice ephe-
                                          Da edderkop:spider[A][SE] Da myre:ant[A][SE]      Ephemeridae:
                                           N odde:head[A]                                       mayflies[A]
                                         *eodderkop=other head'[G Kopf][A]

417.34:  meral journeeys, sans mantis ne shooshooe, featherweighed
        Gr ephemera: F journee:day[A] F sans hantisse ne chouchou:without  feather weight
        things that                  security or sweetheart[A]            (jockeys, boxers)[A]
        live but a                   Gr mantis: diviner, prophet;
        day; short-                  kind of grasshopper (mantis
        lived insects                 religiosa, the praying mantis);
               [CL]                 green-garden-frog[CL]
      Superstition that praying mantis guides lost travellers[A]
      In Egyptian Judgment of Dead, dead person's heart is weighted against feather[A]

417.35:  animule, actually and presumptuably sinctifying chronic's de-
              L animula:    actual grace(temporary) & sanctifying grace(permanent)[A]
              a little soul;
              L animulus:

417.36:  spair, was sufficiently and probably coocoo much for his chorous
                                                                       too much[A]       L choros: dance;
             *edespair and presumption are sins against hope'[A]                         body of dancers;
             *letter,26/3/28, to HSW[A]                                                   place for dancing


418.01:  of gravitates. Let him be Artalone the Weeps with his parisites
              force of gravity[A]         Art the Lone:son of Conn[A] G Wespe:            Paris[Gaze]
              L gravitates: weights[A]    I Art(art): Bear/Stone[GaeL] wasp[GerL]
              : severities; dignities,       I Parthalon(paraon): leader
              importances, powers        of prehistoric *colonists[GaeL]
                             [CL]        Ath Luain(alun): Luan's ("hero")
                                          Ford; town on Shannon, anglic.

        U05.304-7: eLord Iveagh once cashed a sevenfigure cheque for a million in the bank of Ireland. 
       Shows you the money to be made out of porter. Still the other brother lord Ardilaun has to 
       change his shirt four times a day, they say. Skin breeds lice or vermin.'[A]

418.02:  peeling off him I'll be Highfee the Crackasider. Flunkey Footle
                                               Iveagh[Gaze]                     s eYankee Doodle

418.03:  furloughed foul, writing off his phoney, but Conte Carme makes
              went to London, just to ride a pony'[A]               It conte:count[A]  F Sl carme:money[A]
                                                                    L compte: elegantly L carmen: tune, song;
                                                                                 [CL]  poem[CL]
                                               *One of Count John McCormick's bestselling records
                                                 was s Carme, Canto Sorrentino[A]

418.04:  the melody that mints the money. @Ad majorem l.s.d.! Divi gloriam. 
                                                                 L Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam: For the Greater
                                                                 Glory of God (Jesuit motto)[A][CL]
                                                                 L Laus Deo Semper: Praise   L dives:rich[A]
                                                                 to God Forever(Jesuit slogan) Coll divi:divided[A]
                                                                                    [A][CL]   L Divi: of God('s)[CL]
                                                                 L.S.D.:pounds, shillings & pence [A]

418.05:  A darkener of the threshold. Haru? Orimis, capsizer of his ant-
                ph darken one's threshhold[A]     Haru=Horus[A] L oremus:let 
                                                                    us pray[A][CL]
             Ant:mythological fish in Egyptian Book of the Dead which pilots the Sun-god's Ant-boat[A]

418.06:  boat, sekketh rede from Evil-it-is, lord of loaves in Amongded. 
              Sekhet Aaru(eField of Reeds'):                                           Amenta[Gaze]
              part of Sekhet Hetep[A][Gaze]                                           among the dead

          Book of the Dead CXXII: e"Evil is it" is the name of  the rudder.... Let me... go in peace 
          into the beautiful Amentet... and let me adore Osiris, the Lord of life'[A]

418.07:  Be it ! So be it ! Thou-who-thou-art, the fleet-as-spindhrift, 

418.08:  impfang thee of mine wideheight. Haru! 
          G empfang:welcomed,   G meine Weisheit:       Hru: last word in Book of the Dead, 
          received[GerL]        my wisdom[A][GerL]     meaning eday, into day, by day'[A]
          G Empfang:welcome,
          G impfen:vaccinate[GerL]

418.09:    The thing pleased him andt, and andt, 
                  The thing pleaded him Don't, Ondt

418.10:  He larved ond he larved on he merd such a nauses
               he laughed & he laughed & he made such a noise[A]    nauseating[A]
                   larvae[A]                       F merde[A]        L nausea:
                                                    L merda: dung,   Gr nausia:
                                                    shit[CL]           seasickness[CL]
                                                                       G nosos: sickness,

418.11:  The Gracehoper feared he would mixplace his fauces. 
                                                                          L fauces: throat,

418.12:  I forgive you, grondt Ondt, said the Gracehoper, weeping,

418.13:  For their sukes of the sakes you are safe in whose keeping. 
                         Du suk:sigh[A]                                    housekeeping[A]
                                                                            See FW191.11-12[AI]

418.14:  Teach Floh and Luse polkas, show Bienie where's sweet
               L flos: flower,  Smetana:Luisa's Polka[A]       G Biene:
               blossom[CL]                                    bee[GerL]
               G Floh:flea[GerL]

418.15:  And be sure Vespatilla fines fat ones to heat.
                                L *vespatilla:
                                little wasp[CL]

418.16:  As I once played the piper I must now pay the count
                        ph pay the piper[A]                      Count McCormick[A]

418.17:  So saida to Moyhammlet and marhaba to your Mount!
        pr If the mountain will not come to Mohammed, Mohammed will go to the mountain[A]
           Arab sabah el her: good morning![A]  Abraham(anagram)[A]
           Arab massyk bil her: good evening![A]
           I Magh-Thamhleachta(ma houlokhte):
           Plain of a Plague-grave[GaeL]
           ?Moy R(+Mohammed)[Gaze]

418.18:  Let who likes lump above so what flies be a full 'un;

418.19:  I could not feel moregruggy if this was prompollen. 
                                            groggy[A]                I primpeallian:beetle[A]
                                    We morgrugyn:ant[A]

418.20:  I pick up your reproof, the horsegift of a friend,
                                      pr Never look a gift horse in the mouth[A]
                                                     G Gift:poison[GerL]

418.21:  For the prize of your save is the price of my spend.

418.22:  Can castwhores pulladeftkiss if oldpollocks forsake 'em
                            Castor... Pollux[A]      MGr Polydefkis: Pollux[A] bollocks[A]
              (Gemini:Zeus's Twins) Philadelphia[Gaze]

418.23:  Or Culex feel etchy if Pulex don't wake him? 
             L culex:gnat[A]      itchy[A]  L pulex: flea[A][CL]
             F cul: arse[A]

418.24:  A locus to loue, a term it t'embarass, 
              locust[A]      love[A]  termite[A]  embrace[A]
              L locus:                time[A]
              a place, 

418.25:  These twain are the twins that tick Homo Vulgaris.
                                                         ticks: group  L homo vulgaris: 
                                                         of mites[A]   ordinary man[A][CL]

418.26:  Has Aquileone nort winged to go syf
              It aquilone:  It leone:        wind to go South[A]
              N. wind     lion[A]  North[Gaze]        South[Gaze]
                     L aquilonius:
                     L aquilo: the
L Aquilonia: town in Italy, now Lacedogna[CL]
#Aquilant(=black) and his brother Gryphon(=white) in Orlando Furioso[A]

418.27:  Since the Gwyfyn we were in his farrest drewbryf
                           griffin[A]                           drawbridge[A]
                      We gwyfyn:moth[A]                     We drewbryf:bug[A]

418.28:  And that Accident Man not beseeked where his story ends
    (Wyndham Lewis:Time & Western Man)[A]   G besiegt:conquered
                          Occident[A]                        [A][GerL]
                                                G besucht: visited[GerL]
    "Accident Man" is Occident Man, an allusion to Time and Western Man by Wyndham Lewis,
a spatialist.  Lewis also appears in Jone's fable of the Mookse.[RG]

418.29:  Since longsephyring sighs sought heartseast for their orience? 
                       long suffering[A]                      hearts+East[Gaze]        audience[A]
                       L zephyrs: a gentle[A]                 ease[A] Far-East          Orient
                       west wind[CL]

418.30:  We are Wastenot with Want, precondamned, two and true,
                       pr Waste not, want not[A]

418.31:  Till Nolans go volants and Bruneyes come blue. 
                 Nolan/Bruno[A] L volans:flying[A][CL]
                 L nolens volens:willy-nilly[A][CL]
                 I O Nuallain(o nulan): des. of Nuallan
                 (dim. nual, "noble")[GaeL]

418.32:  Ere those gidflirts now gadding you quit your mocks for my gropes
                            gadflies[A]                                             Mookse/Gripes[A]
                            girls: cf. FW292.06: "Spice and Westend Women"

418.33:  An extense must impull, an elapse must elopes, 
              extension(space)[A], elapsing(time)[A]

418.34:  Of my tectucs takestock, tinktact, and ail's weal;
                       tactics[A]  G Taktstock:baton[A]          All's well[A]
                       L tectum:
                       a roof[CL]

418.35:  As I view by your farlook hale yourself to my heal. 


419.01:  Partiprise my thinwhins whiles my blink points unbroken on
              partipris: a preconceived opinion, prejudice[A]          (my look)[A]

419.02:  Your whole's whercabroads with Tout's trightyright token on.
                                      work[A]              F tout[A]
                                  L hircus: he-goat[CL]

419.03:  My in risible universe youdly haud find
                      eVisible Universe' of     you's hardly find[A] 
                     Aristotle & Aquinas[A]          L haud:not at all[A][CL]
 L risus: laughter[A]

419.04:  Sulch oxtrabeeforeness meat soveal behind. 
        G solch:such  ox...  beef...          meat...   veal[A]
             [A][GerL]  extra                G mit[A]  G so viel: so much[A][GerL]
                                                         G sowohl:as well as[GerL]

419.05:  Your feats end enormous, your volumes immense, 
               your feet are enormous[A]

419.06:  (May the Graces I hoped for sing your Ondtship song sense!), 
                                                     G sind:are[A]   ownership   send some[A]

419.07:  Your genus its worldwide, your spacest sublime!
                      genius                              species[A]

419.08:  But, Holy Saltmartin, why can't you beat time? 
           It saltmartino: pop. name of some hopping insects[A] 
           (the metre is that of Goldsmith's Retaliation)[A]
           The Samaritans: An English charity organization

419.09:    In the name of the former and of the latter and of their holo-
                  eIn the name of the Father & of the Son & of the Holy Ghost, Amen'(blessing)[A]

419.10:  caust. Allmen. 




Copyright (c) 2002 Eishiro Ito.  All rights reserved.